Pug Physical Morphology: Problems, Symptoms & Treatments

The Pug has a number of issues, many of which are directly linked to the dog’s physical morphology, and these issues may be rather frustrating. Its shorter snout, also known as brachiocephalic, may create breathing difficulties and air gulping, both of which can give him gas and cause issues in environments that are hot and humid. It is very necessary to have air conditioning throughout the warm months in the south.
Pugs often exhibit symptoms of heat stress, the most prevalent of which are difficulty breathing, wheezing, and heavy panting. Pugs who are experiencing problems due to the heat should be cooled down with ice water and then sent to a veterinarian as soon as feasible.
Pugs often have anomalies in their eyelids and eyelashes, and their eyes tend to protrude somewhat. Their eyes are also prone to being scratched.

Because of the breed’s somewhat undershot jaw, tooth and gum issues are also a possibility for owners of these dogs. The mouth of a developing puppy should be examined by the owner to check for oral tumours and to ensure that the baby teeth are not being kept in the mouth. It is very important to brush one’s teeth in order to avoid developing gum disease.

The following is a list of probable health issues that may be related with the breed of Pug. There is no guarantee that your Pug will experience any of these issues. It is vital that when purchasing a puppy, you do so from a breeder that is responsible and well-respected, and that you subsequently have the puppy examined by your own veterinarian. In our medical area, you’ll find further information on some of these disorders, including more specifics. For further information, please follow the link provided.


1) Stenotic Nares is a medical term that refers to a constriction of the air flow at the very end of the nose. This characteristic is most often seen in dogs belonging to the brachycephalic breed group (dogs with pushed in noses.) Boxers, bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs are some of the breeds that fall under this category.

It is common for brachycephalic dogs to have nares (nostrils) that are insufficiently wide to allow for regular breathing. The majority of the time, these dogs will only take breaths via their mouths, or they will produce wheezing noises when they breathe with their jaws closed. A surgical procedure known as rhinoplasty is recommended as the primary method of therapy for this condition. During a rhinoplasty, a thin wedge of tissue is removed from the side of each nostril in order to reshape the nose. Following this step, the residual tissue is sutured together, which effectively widens the entrance of the nares and enables more normal breathing.

A stenotic condition of the nares may be identified with a physical examination. You should have your pet checked out by a vet to discover whether or not this or any other ailment is present.

2) Entropion is a condition in which the outer borders of the eyelid roll inward toward the eye. This is a very frequent eye condition that may either be present at birth or acquired at a later point in one’s life. The condition most often manifests itself on the lower eyelids. In most cases, a hereditary form of entropion will manifest itself during the first few months of a person’s life.
There is no medicinal treatment that can rectify the entropion itself; the only option available is surgical surgery. Making certain that your veterinarian has previous expertise doing these treatments is an essential component of the surgical repair of entropion. The consequences of incorrectly overcorrecting entropion may be severe. When this happens, the eyelid could roll abnormally wide or it might not be able to shut all the way. Both of these issues may lead to inflammation of the cornea, which may either another surgery or a lifetime of medicine to safeguard the eye.

3) Prolonged Soft Palate The soft palate of brachycephalic dogs often has a length that is disproportionate to the overall length of the mouth. Snoring is one of the clinical indications associated with this condition. Snoring occurs when the free end of the soft palate flaps during breathing. If the soft palate is sufficiently long, it will hang down into Medical Problems With Pug’s Physical Morphology: Symptoms & Treatmentsairway directly in front of the entrance of the trachea (windpipe), which will obstruct the normal passage of air and cause breathing problems. This is perhaps the most dangerous of the three disorders that affect the upper airway of brachycephalic dogs, due to the fact that airflow may be entirely restricted in certain cases. The extra palatine tissue may be excised (removed) surgically in order to address this ailment as a therapy option. This operation reduces the size of the palate and ensures that there is no obstruction to the passage of air.

4) Slipped Stifles (patellar luxation): Patellar luxations, also known as dislocation of the knee cap, are common in dogs but uncommon in cats. There are two primary categories that may be used to classify patellar luxations. First, and most often, there is a condition known as medially luxating patellas (MLP), which is congenital (meaning it has always been there) and most frequently affects cats and smaller breeds of dogs. The second kind is called laterally luxating patellas, and it may happen to any pet at any time. It’s usually caused by some kind of trauma. Lameness may develop if the patella begins to luxate, but it often goes away when the patella returns to its normal position. Lameness is typically intermittent, and animals will learn to lower the patella voluntarily by extending the hip and the knee together behind them. This is how they may prevent lameness from becoming chronic. Physical examination results are used to formulate a diagnosis, which may then be validated using radiography. In the event that the patella is displaced at the time that the radiographs are obtained, the patella luxation will be seen on the radiographs. Arthritis is a risk that is present in some form or another in every animal that has a patellar luxation. Surgical intervention can be required if the condition is serious enough. The patellar luxation condition may be inherited or brought on by an accident.

5) Dry Eye (also known as Keratoconjunctivitus sicca): although the eyes of a healthy dog have a lustrous appearance, the eyes of a dog suffering from dry eye are dull and look grainy. This disorder is brought on by a deficiency in the formation of tears. It’s possible that this is due to a lack of nerve stimulation in the tear glands, a malfunction in the tear glands themselves, or a blockage in the ducts that deliver tears to the eyes. Only a veterinarian is qualified to do a complete diagnostic in order to ascertain the root of the problem. The treatment will be determined by the nature of what caused the ailment as well as its degree of severity.

6) Bilateral Cataracts It is possible to diagnose cataracts in dogs by seeing opaque patches on the lens of the eye. These spots have the potential to completely or partially impair one’s eyesight. While some cataracts are passed down via families, some do not. Surgery is an option that may improve the dog’s prognosis in certain circumstances.

7) Corneal Ulcers (also known as indolent ulcers, recurrent corneal erosion, or ulcerative keratitis): Any scratch or damage to a dog’s eye may result in an ulcer. Other names for this condition include indolent ulcer, recurrent corneal erosion, and ulcerative keratitis. An abrasion or flaw in the cornea, which is the transparent surface tissue of the eye, is known as a corneal ulcer. Ulcers may either be superficial or profound. Squinting and tears are common symptoms of this unpleasant illness, which explains why these are the signals that are seen. Trauma is a common factor in the development of ulcers; this may occur as a result of contact with another cat or dog, or it may be the result of something being trapped under the eyelid, most often foxtails. Ulcers are also caused by the eyelids “rolling in,” known medically as entropion, which causes the eyelashes to rub against the surface of the eye; having additional eyelashes, known medically as ectopic cilia; or having insufficient tear production (dry eye).

8) Demodectic skin mites, often known as demodectic mange: Pugs have a significant risk of contracting demodectic mange, particularly while they are still pups. Treatment for mange must always be administered by a licenced veterinarian. The mite Demodex canis is the culprit behind demodectic mange, also known as canine demodecosis. This condition affects the skin of dogs. This mite is a common inhabitant of the hair follicles of canine hosts and may be detected in any dog. Within the first few days of life, mites may be spontaneously passed on from nursing moms to their pups by the puppies themselves. Only after mites have reproduced uncontrollably and are present in abnormally large numbers do symptoms of sickness become apparent.

In its less severe forms, demodectic mange is characterised by symptoms such as itching and scratching, skin that is reddish or scaled, blackheads, and patchy hair loss. Cases that are more severe are characterised by a widespread loss of hair, the formation of pustules (pimples), and a crusty texture in the afflicted regions. The head and the feet are often involved in the most incidents.

There is still a lot of mystery around the actual causes of mange in dogs, but we do know that immune suppression and heredity are two of the contributing factors. In certain families, there is a genetic predisposition to develop demodicosis, and afflicted offspring are almost always produced by the same set of parents. Although every breed is vulnerable, some are more likely to get the disease than others. Old English Sheepdogs, Dobermans, Boxers, Shar-Peis, Shih-Tzus, and Lhasa Apsos are some of the breeds that are prone to severe cases of demodecosis. Other breeds at risk include Shih-Tzus and Lhasa Apsos. There is also a possibility that a dog’s chance of acquiring mange is increased if its immune system is suppressed as a result of underlying conditions (such Cushing’s illness and hypothyroidism) or medications (like steroids and chemotherapy treatments).

A diagnosis of mange requires taking deep skin scrapings in addition to looking at the patient’s medical history. Mites have been extracted from the hair follicles and may be seen in these scrapings when examined under a microscope.

The age at which symptoms of demodecosis first appear as well as their location on the body are common ways to characterise the condition. Dogs under 1 ½ years of age suffer from juvenile-onset mange. This type often runs in families. Just about half of all dogs diagnosed with juvenile-onset demodecosis will recover without any medical intervention. On the other hand, the other half can develop secondary bacterial infections or encounter other complications that call for medical care. Adult-onset demodectic mange is a kind of demodectic sarcoptic dermatitis that affects dogs older than 2 years and is almost always related to some underlying cause.

To effectively treat adult-onset mange, it is necessary to first identify and then treat the underlying cause of the condition. The patterns of distribution of mange are divided into two categories: localised and generalised. One localised region of the body may be affected by focal mange. A illness that has spread throughout the body affects either the full face or two or more feet. A prognosis for the treatment of mange may be developed with the use of these categories by veterinarians.

The therapy comprises of insecticidal dips and medicines to treat secondary infections. In certain cases, extra treatment for the underlying medical issues may also be required. In many instances, the course of therapy lasts for many months, which may be extremely irritating for both the pet owners and the veterinarians who are treating the animals. In addition to receiving treatment for mange, it is recommended that dogs that acquire the generalised form of demodecosis undergo surgical neutering. This will prevent the dogs from reproducing and so increasing the number of vulnerable dogs in the population.

Young dogs with a confined sickness have the highest chance of a successful therapy, according to the prognosis. It is more challenging to treat mange in older dogs and dogs with broad or severe forms of the condition.

9) Distichiasis is the abnormal development of an eyelash along the edge of the eyelid, which originates from the meibomian glands. This places them in a position where they are immediately out of the lid margin, and as a result, they touch the surface of the eye. The severity of the damage that is done by this is proportional to the brittleness of the eyelash that develops, as well as its quantity and precise location. Cocker spaniels, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, Lhasa Apsos, tiny Poodles, Golden Retrievers, Shelties, and Shih Tzus are the breeds most likely to be affected by this ailment, in that order.

Distichiasis, if left untreated, may result in corneal ulcers, persistent eye discomfort, excessive tear production, and spasms of the eyelids. It is nearly probable that the dog will have some level of discomfort as a result, and when clinical indications are apparent, the best course of action is to permanently remove the eyelashes that are causing the problem.

It is possible to do surgery in a variety of methods, the specifics of which are determined by the number of lashes that are present as well as the preferences of the surgeon. Cryosurgery, which involves freezing the lid margin at the afflicted areas, may sometimes be performed with the use of a local anaesthetic in a dog that is cooperative. There are other surgical approaches available. Because almost all surgical procedures for this illness require the use of an operating microscope or enough magnification, many primary care physicians send patients with these kinds of conditions to veterinary ophthamologists.

In most cases, postoperative treatment for inflammation caused by the operation will be required, and preparation for it should be made in advance. Follow-up appointments often consist of two or three visits and are used to check for the development of new eyelashes as well as remove those that come back or remain after the first treatment. This can be treated successfully in the vast majority of instances. Your dog will have a lot easier time of it as a result of this change.

10) Encephalitis is a medical word that refers to inflammation of the brain, which may result in seizures. Because of the severity of this ailment, the only person qualified to diagnose and treat it is a licenced veterinarian.

11) Progressive Retinal Atrophy, or PRA, is a genetic eye disease that leads to the death of retinal cells over time. This condition is known as generalised progressive retinal atrophy. The deterioration happens slowly over time, culminating in blindness between the ages of 5 and 7. A significant number of breeders have their dogs tested for this disease.

12) Large-breed dogs are more likely to be affected by the congenital condition known as hip dysplasia. It ultimately results in severe arthritis and causes weakening and lameness in the hind parts. This condition is also known as degenerative joint disease, arthrosis, and osteoarthritis. Arthritis is only one of its many names.

This illness is the result of a complex interaction between a dog’s genetic predisposition to develop the illness and environmental circumstances that bring on the symptoms of the illness. The sickness is caused by a combination of these two elements. These environmental influences include excessive calcium in the diet of puppy food intended for big breed dogs, as well as obesity, diets rich in protein and calories, and insufficient or excessive physical activity. One of the biggest contributors to the continued existence of hip dysplasia is the practise of breeding dogs that already have the condition. When one of a dog’s hip sockets is affected by hip dysplasia, it increases the likelihood that the other knee may develop issues with its ligaments (anterior cruciate rupture).

13) Pigmentary Keratitis: This condition is characterised by the accumulation of black scar tissue on the surface of the eye. It manifests as a brown pigment that may cover the eye progressively over time, generally beginning in the inner corners of the eye. This process may be very painful. PK may be brought on by a wide variety of factors, and in rare cases it can even be brought on by nothing at all. In the vast majority of cases, this condition is only a sign of another issue, such as dry eye, entropion, or ulcers. Overexposure to the elements is another potential cause of this condition. In order to attempt to eradicate the pigment, the treatment consists of using eyedrops containing either cyclosporine or tacrolimus anywhere from once to three times each day. In cases when entropion is the origin of the scar tissue, surgery on the eye may be able to assist.

14) Legg-Calve The degradation of the head of the femur (thighbone) that occurs as a result of inadequate blood flow is known as Perthes disease. Because there is not enough blood reaching the head of the femur, it starts to die and fall apart as a consequence of the lack of blood. The disintegration may be observed on x-rays as a flattening of the tip of the femur, which indicates that the bone is breaking down.

In almost all cases, just one of the legs is afflicted. This illness affects men between the ages of 4 and 10 years old more commonly than it does females. There is a correlation between some family bloodlines and an extraordinarily high prevalence of this ailment, whilst other family bloodlines seem to be less vulnerable to the condition.

The degree of the deterioration will determine how these symptoms manifest themselves in a patient’s body. Discomfort in the knees (which may be the sole first indicator), pain in the thighs, muscle atrophy in the upper thighs, limited mobility in the hips, limping, trouble walking, and asymmetry (unequal length) of the legs are all possible physical indications of this disorder.

X-rays taken of the hip and/or pelvis are often all that is required to make a conclusive diagnosis. The treatment for this ailment will also be different depending on the severity of the symptoms. Restricted activity can be all that’s needed in less severe situations. Getting enough sleep might help the body produce new bone cells to replace the ones that have been destroyed. In more severe situations, surgical intervention can be required.

The severity of the injury will determine how this ailment will play out throughout the course of its long-term course. It is essential to get the dog to a veterinarian as soon as possible in order to start treatment for this condition as early on as feasible. Dogs that have ever been diagnosed with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, no matter how severe the condition may have been, should never be utilised for breeding purposes.

   ðŸ˜ These are popular items for Pug owners, maybe you need them too? Click images & check them out! ✅

 ðŸ¥° This Dog Harness Protection Vest has removable spikes to protect the pug from other aggressive animals. The spikes are made of hard plastic so they won’t hurt your pet. The adjustable waist belt and collar help to use for different dog shapes and sizes. Check out the video to see how to measure your pet.

🥰 This Pet Travel Carrier For Small Dogs is allowed on most airplane flights. You can put the carrier under the seat in front of you with the wheels removed. It has excellent ventilation with mesh windows and a full zipper for easy access. Check out the reviews to avoid returning.

🥰 This Water Fountain For Pet is made of stainless steel water bowl and filter tray, making it durable. It is convenient for your pug to drink the water from the dish without getting its nose into the water, unlike other fountains. Also, it is easy to fill and clean. Check out the reviews before making your decision.

 ðŸ¥° This durable Dog Feeder allows a quick setup with the LCD screen. You can set the time to let it automatically dispense food on the right time up to 4 meals a day while you are asleep or on vacation. The tray and food tank can be removed for cleaning. Click the reviews to get tips about setting the feeder.

 ðŸ¥° This Black Dog Waste Roll Bags contain 30 rolls and 6000 bags. The bag can hold water for 30 days and controls the odor. Click to check the reviews before purchasing.

🥰 This Stuffed Toy For Dogs comes with a snuggle puppy, 3 heat packs, a puppy blanket, a toy and a teething aid. This kit reduces barking and anxiety for your pug, enhancing their sleep and crate and kennel training. The puppy blanket gives extra warmth and comfort. Click to see the reviews to see if your pug will like it too.

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